The following story could have aptly been titled either “Chicago Echoes in Seattle” or, alternatively, “Rashomon Echoes in Seattle’s News Media.” The former potential title would be due to the story’s instigation by the provocative verdict in the “Chicago Seven” trial–crucially revealed nationwide on the date in focus here–and the latter due to the story’s wildly conflicting accounts given by, respectively, the organizers of the protest event involved and Seattle’s then-two leading daily newspapers.
In the conveniently short version, a large group of anti-Establishment protesters would display the worst tendencies of the American Left of their time by recklessly vandalizing a crucial section of downtown Seattle, clashing along the way with cops and, eventually, prosecutors.
The necessarily longer version would more accurately resemble Akira Kurosawa’s classic cinematic tale, in which a similarly contentious event is re-told by three of its key participants in three wildly conflicting versions, leaving the ideal of an “objective” account hopelessly washed away like a fragile sand sculpture after a violent rainstorm–much like the storm that crucially frames Rashomon‘s finale.
All involved in the story would likely agree, at least, that the “Chicago Seven” trial was at the heart of the clash that shook Seattle that day. In mid-February 1970, the trial of the seven infamous defendants charged with “interstate conspiracy to incite a riot” during the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago was obviously winding down towards a highly anticipated verdict. The “Seven” in question, cueing the nation’s anti-Establishment masses, had then called for their many disparate supporters to organize local demonstrations nationwide on “The Day After” the impending verdict.
Enter the Seattle Liberation Front. The SLF was a brazenly “radical” organization formed one mere month prior to the impending “Day After,” inspired by a provocative public appearance in Seattle on January 17 by Chicago defendant Jerry Rubin. (See the RSR entry “January 17, 1970: Jerry Rubin Brings the Chicago Noise to Seattle” for details.) The SLF wasted no time in planning a “TDA” demonstration to be held at Seattle’s U.S. Federal Courthouse downtown at Fifth Avenue and Spring Street–never mind the inconvenient mystery of the Chicago verdict’s exact date.
Seeking to effectively promote Seattle’s “TDA,” one member of the SLF, Charles “Chip” Marshall, approached the office of Helix–then Seattle’s leading counterculture newspaper–with a copy of a manifesto calling for a “Stop the Courts Day” at 2 p.m. in front of the courthouse on the still-unknown day of the verdict, seeking its publication in the paper. As Helix editor Walt Crowley (1947-2007) would recall in his 1995 book Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle, “While Marshall’s [manifesto] never explicitly called for a violent action, it all but invited it, and this made us very nervous.”
Crowley’s anxiety, along with that of his kindred Helixistas, would soon prove well founded. On the Sunday prior to “TDA,” Julius Hoffman, the judge in the Chicago trial–already reviled by then by much of America’s radical youth–sentenced all of the Chicago Seven, along with their attorneys, for contempt of court.
This, mind you, before the Chicago jury had yet reached a proper verdict.
For the Seven’s nationwide supporters, this served as both a deadline cue and an inflammatory catalyst for the impending “Day After.” Despite pacifist pleas for genuinely cool reason–such as, in Seattle, the earlier, written pledge of SLF co-founder Michael Lerner “that we have no intention of introducing violence into [Seattle's] demonstration”–Hoffman’s pre-emptive legal strike had apparently infused the nation’s antiwar movement with a profoundly frustrated rage that no pacifist leadership could possibly contain.
Thus, even before “The Day After,” the stars, it seems, were already crossed; the dice already cast.
When 2 p.m. on “TDA” arrived in Seattle, some roughly 2,000 agitated youth–most ranging in age from “juvenile” to twenty-something–had assembled downtown in front of the federal courthouse. While some there may have represented the best kind of “radical”–i.e., wielding a deeply-rooted understanding of the injustice of the Chicago verdict–all too many were, by many accounts, all too young, and simply thus looking for gleefully reckless trouble. Seattle’s then-acting police chief Frank Moore would later sum up the grim situation for Seattle’s news media thusly:
“The demonstrators came prepared for war … They were armed with pipes, clubs, chains, paint and tear gas … and they used them all.”
Thus, what could have been a relatively peaceful demonstration against injustice in the American court system became instead an anti-everything free-for-all, with protesters tossing paint bombs, breaking windows, and violently scuffling with police, from the courthouse to the Federal Building at First Avenue and University Street, and several storefronts in between.
One major point of contention between the protesters’ accounts of the mêlée and those of The Seattle Times and the Seattle Post-Intelligencer concerned the massive use of tear gas, which was plentiful enough for clouds to be seen rising over downtown from Interstate 5. While the Seattle Police Department officially denied using tear gas, and the Times and the P-I both dutifully reported the SPD’s allegation that it was the protesters who had brought the tear gas with them, eyewitness accounts published in Helix two days later declared the opposite: the police had used the tear gas, and one sole demonstrator at one point lobbed a gas bomb into the courthouse–after it had been thrown outside by police inside the building.
In addition, despite initial statements from the SPD and the Mayor’s Office commending the officers on the scene for their “restraint,” the degree of police violence was allegedly drastic enough that the P-I, at least, joined Helix in reporting several instances of police recklessly attacking protesters and innocent bystanders alike.
When the smoke finally cleared, up to eighty-nine people had been arrested, scores were injured, and an estimated $75,000 worth of property damage had been done downtown. Among the other results of Seattle’s “TDA” fiasco, our city would soon claim its own anti-Establishment “Seven,” as that same number of people would soon be named as protest organizers responsible for the riot. The “Seattle Seven” would then be tracked down, arrested, and put on trial later that year in an odd local microcosm of the Chicago trial. And, unfortunately, the whole affair would give the reputation of Seattle’s antiwar movement a black eye that would not soon heal.
–Jeff Stevens. Sources: “Stop the Courts,” “bertold brecht” (a.k.a. Charles “Chip” Marshall), Helix, Feb. 12, 1970; “U.S. Courthouse Attacked; 80 Arrested, Score Injured,” Larry McCarten, Don Carter and Craig Smith, The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 18, 1970, p. 1; “Gas Lingers, Charges Filed,” The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 18, 1970, p. 3; “Rioters’ Damage Put At $30,000; 75 Arrested,” Don Hannula, The Seattle Times, Feb. 18, 1970, p. 1; “Uhlman Praises Police Conduct, Warns ‘Hooligans’,” The Seattle Times, Feb. 18, 1970, p. 1; “14 Juveniles Are Arrested,” The Seattle Times, Feb. 18, 1970; “Window Glass Is Major Casualty,” The Seattle Times, Feb. 18, 1970; “Hospitals Too Close For Gas–Moore,” Lou Corsaletti, The Seattle Times, Feb. 18, 1970, p. A 4; “Militants Vow More Protests,” The Seattle Times, Feb. 18, 1970, p. A 4; “Demonstrators Were Prepared For Battle,” Don Hannula, The Seattle Times, Feb. 18, 1970, p. A 5; “Police Praised–Witness Tells of Officer’s Restraint,” The Seattle Times, Feb. 18, 1970, p. B 1; “Who Is The Real Conspiracy? This Is!,” Helix, Feb. 19, 1970, p. 2; “Outside Leaders Hinted Behind Seattle Violence,” Larry McCarten, The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 19, 1970, p. 1; “Mayor Warns Future Confrontation ‘Hooligans’,” The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 19, 1970, p. 4; “Stiffer Laws, Stronger Protest Reaction Urged,” The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 19, 1970, p. 4; “UW Students Reflect Confusion, Anger at Protest Violence Here,” Frank Herbert, The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 19, 1970, p. 5; “49 Adults, 13 Juveniles Charged in Protest,” The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 19, 1970, p. 5; “Tuesday’s Trouble: Public Defender Asks Probe Of Reported Police Excesses,” Don Hannula, The Seattle Times, Feb. 19, 1970, p. A 8; “Out-Of-Towners May Have Led Demonstration, Says Uhlman,” The Seattle Times, Feb. 18, 1970, p. A 8; “Youths March To Clean It Up,” Larry McCarten, The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Feb. 20, 1970, p. B; Walt Crowley, “Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle” (University of Washington Press, 1995), pp. 168-169.